Strawberries, blueberries, blackberries, service berries, elderberries, jostaberries – some of the tastiest and most healthful foods that Nature provides. I am an avid berry picker. To be a good picker, you have to switch your awareness to berry-mode. You stand near the bush or crouch near the plants and focus on the color of ripe berry – red with no white spots for strawberries, deep blue with no green showing for blueberries. Then your hands dart out and grab them – ever so gently. You can only cradle a few in your palm or you crush them. You disregard the stabs from thorns, the stain of dark juice on your skin. Your hands dart back and forth from bush to basket.
You fill it till just before the berries are about to cascade to the ground. Then you grab another container. This is fun for an hour and not too tiring for half a day. But it’s very different if you have to keep picking for 12 – 14 hours, day after day. When you do this for a living, payment is by the pound or the pint – piece work that puts you under pressure to pick as fast as you can without taking a break. Legally, even a slow picker must be paid minimum wage per hour, but an unethical employer can find many ways to underpay. Continue reading “Berries: Support the Union or Take the Locavore Way”→
Oikos – Organic Norway paid me the great honor of inviting me to be the keynote speaker for their second annual CSA conference, June 23 in Oslo. The gathering took place in a building called Sentralen that looked like an old (maybe early 19th century) public building, but now serves as a cultural center with spaces for a café, theatrical performances, and workshops. I did not get to explore the many rooms and layers. By 10 am, the 80 or so seats were full of farmers, food activists and a few researchers. Currently in Norway there are 40 CSAs – Andelslandbruk – and 20 more in formation. Most of the 40 are only a year or two old – there were four in 2012. The concept has been catching on quickly. Farmers have initiated only about half of the CSAs. Groups of consumers have started, and continue to run the others, often structuring them as coops and renting land from a farmer who may get more involved after a while. They call the people they hire to do the growing – “gardeners” since the scale of most CSAs so far is pretty small and a few groups do all the work themselves.
The official policy of the present Norwegian government is to encourage fewer, bigger farms. With only 3% of the land suitable for farming, Norwegian agricultural production is limited and most of the food comes from abroad. In the fjords, there are big salmon farms largely for export, and Norway still has an important fishing fleet. Yet as in other European countries, farms are struggling to stay in business. The statistic Oikos folks quoted was Norway loses 5 farms every day. Continue reading “CSA in Norway”→
At one of the public brainstorming sessions for the New York Organic Action Plan, an organic farmer made an impassioned plea for support for “independent science” and told us that with 8.5 billion mouths to feed by 2050, we will need genetic engineering to prevent starvation.
I would like to examine these words carefully to decipher what they mean, how those words are used by this farmer and by others, and suggest how the movement for locally grown organic food in this country should respond.
What is the meaning of ‘independent science’? As co-chair of the Policy Committee for the Northeast Organic Farming Association of New York (NOFA-NY), I have been an active participant in the coalition that is campaigning to pass GMO labeling legislation in NY State. In this capacity, I have spoken at public meetings, to the press and on radio interviews. A question that I have heard from proponents of biotechnology is “why do you organic farmers oppose science, like the climate deniers?” Continue reading “Organic Farmers Are Not Anti-Science, but Genetic Engineers Often Are”→
After we dance around the May Pole, come to the woods of the Kraai Preserve!
There are three ways to get there. You can drive by turning right onto Welcher Road out of the farm driveway, and then turning right again onto Norsen Road, going to the very end of the road and parking. There is a sign at the entrance to the Kraai Preserve. Or you can walk straight across the Peacework fields to the woods. But I invite you to join me in taking the trail we have created along the Ganargua. To get to the trail, we walk from the barns to the north along the grassed banks of the little stream that is overgrown with watercress, past the hoop house and the hay bales until we get to the Ganargua. There we turn left and follow the trail marked with small Genesee Land Trust signs. Peacework leases our farmland from the Genesee Land Trust with a 25 year rolling lease. CSA members contributed the money so that the Land Trust could purchase the farm ten years ago. This May Day Party is a significant anniversary, celebrating a full decade of cordial and productive cooperation between the farm and the land trust! The Kraai Preserve is a nature preserve that honors the memory of Doug Kraai, a passionate conservationist as well as bison farmer, good friend and founding father of NOFA-NY.
While most people understand the urgency of reducing the use of fossil fuels and resulting carbon emissions, fewer realize that a companion path is just as urgent – restoring carbon in the soil. Fully a third of the excess carbon now in the atmosphere used to be in the soil. Poor land management and industrial farming methods released that carbon into the air. Before forests and grasslands were converted to field agriculture, soil organic matter generally composed 6 to 10% of the soil mass. These days, agricultural fields in the US average 1 to 3% organic matter. Soil scientist Dr. Rattan Lal has calculated that “a mere 2 percent increase in the carbon content of the planet’s soils could offset 100 percent of all greenhouse gas emissions going into the atmosphere.” Using traditional methods, organic farms like Peacework are putting carbon in the soil and keeping it there.
Without requiring a billion dollar contraption like the one the tar sands folks boast about, Peacework cooperates with Nature to increase soil carbon. The first and simplest practice the farmers use is to keep plants growing as much of the year as possible. Plants are the miraculous carbon pumps – and they work for free. Through photosynthesis, the chlorophyll molecule in their leaves allows plants to absorb energy from sunlight and to use that energy to separate water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen. The plant releases the oxygen back into the air, and combines the hydrogen with carbon dioxide to make simple carbohydrates such as glucose. This process is so active that an estimated 15% of all the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere moves through photosynthetic organisms every year! Continue reading “Carbon Farming at Peacework Farm: A Farm that Builds Carbon in the Soil”→
Very excited and honored to be here and to share the podium again with Professor Wen and Andre Leu!
At the 1993 NYS CSA Gathering in Syracuse, I shared my thoughts on the significance of CSA as an antidote to the dominant industrial food system: “We need to take our work more seriously. We have the chance to build the food system that will replace the current one. CSA is an idea – a tremendously flexible concept for a new consumer-farmer connection, an alternative system of distribution based on community values. The economics of direct sales make this a win-win solution for farmers and consumers. The farmer gets a decent price and the consumer pays less, since there is no middleman. For the farmer, the CSA offers the possibility of a broad support group of people who genuinely care about the farm’s survival and who are willing to share the farmer’s risks. Consumers have the opportunity to connect with the earth, know and trust the people who grow their food and support the local economy. The big question we must answer – will this be sustainable?” These were bold words, and you may ask what I had been smoking, but in 2015, 28 years after the first tiny CSA began in NY, there are over 400 CSAs providing weekly shares to over 30,000 households. In Maine, one family out of 5 belongs to a CSA.
There would be little point to traveling half way across the world just to go to workshops and meetings. You can do that by skype or teleconferencing. The many encounters and personal connections around a conference are at least as valuable as the formal agenda. At meals and late into the evenings I had wonderful talks with friends old and new. Here are a few glimpses.
One of my dearest friends in the international CSA network is Shinji Hashimoto. I had the pleasure of touring his farm on my first trip to Japan and four years later staying for two days with his family during the Urgenci conference in Kobe in 2010. I was a guest at a special dinner to celebrate 17 new farmers in his area whom Shinji helped train. Then I returned the favor by arranging for Shinji to be a keynote speaker at a NOFA-NY conference in 2013. In Beijing he had some sad and disturbing news. Fukushima and radioactive contamination have caused a serious and perhaps irreparable split among the members of the board of the Japanese Organic Agriculture Association (JOAA), which has championed Teikei since its origins in the mid 1970’s. JOAA has been very supportive of the Fukushima area farmers who are determined to stay on their family lands despite the contamination. Michio Uozumi, a Teikei farmer and JOAA board member, has been able to demonstrate soil management methods that tie up the cesium in the soil so that the produce does not contain dangerous levels of radioactivity.
JOAA has also supported sending young farmers to help those who remain in the contaminated zone. Shinji Hashimoto is vehemently opposed to this program. Shinji’s father was a child in Hiroshima when the US dropped the atom bomb on that city at the end of WWII and has spent all his life observing what that exposure did to survivors. Shinji accedes that farmers may be able to make the produce safe, but the whole area continues to have dangerously high radiation levels. He has taken a Geiger counter there to do his own testing and considers it immoral to expose young farmers to this level of contamination. Shinji also shared the much happier story of how his Teikei members and fellow farmers dug out his farm after the landslide last summer. Continue reading “Rural Regeneration, Part 3”→
Two simultaneous conferences – the 6th Urgenci International CSA Conference and the 7th annual national Chinese CSA conference – shared a grand opening with a performance of traditional Chinese instruments playing while a video showed a mysterious hand deftly sketching scenes of everyday life on a traditional farm. There were welcome speeches from the conference sponsors, Tsinghua University, the Shunyi District Government and the Ministry of Agriculture.
One of the first books I read after making the decision to move to a farm in Gill, MA was Farmers of Forty Centuries by F.H. King, a US agronomist who toured farms in China, Korea and Japan in 1909. I was impressed and inspired by King’s descriptions of the intensive, highly integrated farms where every scrap of nutrient, including humanure, was carefully recycled, and hoped one day to see for myself. The Urgenci International CSA Conference in Beijing, Nov. 18 – 22, 2015, was my big chance.